The Rockwood Psychotherapy & Consulting Treatment Program Manuals are based on our extensive research and experience working with a variety of populations, including offenders of all types and risk levels with and without mental health issues, in a variety of settings, including the community, hospitals, prisons, and institutions for mentally disordered offenders.

Recidivism Research Results

We have examined our main treatment program for sexual offenders in a range of settings in a variety of ways including the targets of treatment and long-term outcome. The procedures we use to produce change on criminogenic and other targets of programs have been evaluated and shown to be effective.  Our other treatment programs have also received at least some validation, typically in terms of meeting the targets of treatment.

Our initial (2005) evaluation of the outcome of our treatment program (N=535; Mean follow-up = 5.4 years) showed a 3.2% sexual recidivism rate compared to an expected reoffence rate of 16.8%. We followed this same group up for a further 5 years (2010; N=535; Mean follow-up = 8.4 years) and found a 5.6% sexual recidivism rate compared to an expected reoffence rate of 23.8%.

Our most recent examination of this group is published in the journal Sexual Abuse (2020; Vol. 32(2), pps. 127-153). This study was conducted in cooperation with Dr. Mark E. Olver & Dr. T. Nicholaichuk of the University of Saskatchewan and the Correctional Service of Canada. In this outcome study, the recidivism rate for the Rockwood program (N = 381; sexual recidivism rate = 4.2%) was compared with two matched for risk and time at risk (fixed 8-years) groups, namely an untreated group (N = 104; sexual recidivism rate = 20.2%) and a group treated in the same prison system’s (i.e., the Correctional Service of Canada) regular sex offender program (N= 616; sexual recidivism rate = 10.7%). In this study, the treatment program described in the Rockwood manuals was found to have statistically significantly lower recidivism rates than either of the two other groups, RPS program versus CSC treatment program, Odds Ratio = .37, p < .001, and RPS program versus Untreated, Odds Ratio.17, p < .001. Odds ratios are interpreted to mean that the Rockwood program reduced reoffending by 63% compared to the CSC treatment program and 83% compared to the Untreated group.

Most recently (2021; Journal of Sexual Aggression), based on the results observed in our recidivism study report above, we conducted a cost-benefit analysis of our program. In this analysis, we found at least a 73% reduction in the number of victims created by reoffending and an after-costs savings to the tax payer of more than $14 million over 10 years. This figure does not include other expenses associated with reoffending such as treatment for the victim(s), and the offender having a public defender, suggesting the savings may be significantly higher. While one would hope reductions in the number of people who are victimized (most typically women and children) would be enough incentive for governments to fund treatment programs, we often hear from them that they cannot afford to fund programs. The fact is, they cannot afford not to fund treatment programs.


Sexual Offender Treatment Program Manuals

1)    The Theoretical, Empirical, and Procedural Bases of Treatment Manual (included with the purchase of other program manuals): contains specifics on how to run an effective treatment program including therapeutic process and the appropriate targets for treatment. For a sample of this manual click here: External link opens in new tab or windowGeneric Manual Sample

2)    High to Moderate Intensity Sex Offender Treatment Program Manual

3)    Moderate to Low Intensity Sex Offender Treatment Program Manual

4)    Motivational Preparatory Sex Offender Program Manual

5)    Sex Offender Maintenance/Booster Program Manual

6)    Sex Offender Self-Help Program Manual

7)    Categorical Denier Primer: How to adapt the Moderate to Low Intensity Sex Offender Treatment Program Manual for Categorical Deniers

8)    Arousal Modification Procedures Manual

Other Manuals

9)    Hypersexuality/Sexual Preoccupation/Sexual Addiction Treatment Program Manual

10) Intimate Partner Violence Treatment Program Manual

11) Emotional Self-Regulation Treatment Program Manual (typically used for anger management)

12) CBT for Psychosis and Anxiety Manual

Measurement Instruments

13) Therapist Rating Scale (TRS-2) Manual – measures client dynamic risk and motivation for change across 10 domains in two categories: intellectual understanding of the risk and motivation factors, and acceptance/demonstration of understanding of risk and motivation factors

14) Participant Satisfaction with Treatment Measures manual (2 versions): 1) The Group Satisfaction Scale (GSS) and 2) the Intervention and Services Satisfaction Scale (ISSS) – Both solicit participants’ post-treatment ratings of satisfaction with content, delivery, and therapist(s), and whether the participant would refer the group, intervention, or service to others.


Training and consultation on all aspects of the implementation of all of the manuals is available. Trainings can vary from one-day to the full five-day, or more, comprehensive training, depending on need. More than 100 trainings have been conducted by Rockwood in more than 27 countries worldwide. Please contact us at External link opens in new tab or windowadmin@rockwoodpsyc.com for more information or to book a training for your staff.